For this assignment Begin by reviewing the literature you have synthesized in this course. Identify several emergent themes to use to organize a literature review.You will need to Review assignment Assignment #3 Framework and Assignment # 4 Synthesis of Research . Please use these assignments as a guide do no copy or commit plagerism write in your own words.Both Assignments are attached.

For this assignment you must create an Literature Review Outline:

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Create an outline including the following:

  • One sentence introducing the research topic.
  • A list of the themes you identified in the literature reviewed so far in this course.
  • One sentence noting the theoretical framework(s) used to support the basis of the topic.
  • Two to three sentences noting identified gaps in the research knowledge base leading to support for the research topic.
  • Please include citations,References,APA Style

Length: 2 pages, not including title or reference pages

Please label the title page

Lackey EDR-8200-V2

Week 5

North Central

Attached is Assignment 3 About theoretical framework

Establishing Channels of Communication among Education Stakeholders

The chances of success in every school are increased when there are efficient and effective communication channels amongst the stakeholders. This will ensure that the needs of the students, parents, and everyone involved in the school are properly managed and met. The levels of communication between the stakeholders will be great determinants of the failures and successes of some projects which in are the pillars of the development of schools. An educational setting involves many complexities that should be handled with care; right communication ensures that everything runs smoothly as well as minimizing chances of conflicts between stakeholders (Harris, Nelson 2008).

Information Theory

A theory that best suited the topic is the Information theory; it aims at establishing ways in which communication messages can be disseminated with the fewest mistakes. Communication with a lot of mistakes can cause problems and many unwanted issues. It is important to take time before disseminating any message, understand it and imagine the impact it will have on the recipient. There are many complexities in the learning environment with many people involved; the stakeholders should, therefore, understand that they are communicating to different people who have different ideas about the simplest messages.

The theory is related to the research topic because educational stakeholders deal with young and fragile beings who need to be taken care of well. Any misunderstanding can cost a lot and the blame will be on them. At the same time, teachers interact with different people who have the success of children in their hands; they need to be effective communicators to avoid any errors and miscommunications. The vision of the educational stakeholders should be extended beyond classrooms and showing that effective communication is at the best of their interests, the success of the children does not only depend on what they are taught in class but within the current technological and the complex systems within the school districts which can be used to create effective communication channels (Priddat, 2014).

In a school environment, there are many cultures, religions, and races, all the people involved in the communication setting might have a different understanding of the message. Information, therefore, helps in understanding the need to make all messages neutral and to be able to suit everyone. The messages should be free from discrimination, biases and insulting words. Coming up with effective communication channels makes a great difference and tasks are made easier. There should be a toolkit that involves all communication channels like emails, public address, and many others. If communication is viewed with this perspective, then the focus of the stakeholders will be to ensure that all messages are fixed and well packaged before sending them to the recipient. This will minimize chances of misinterpretations and mistakes that could cost a lot. This theory claims that at the end of the communication process, if the message is not well received, then it will be the fault of the recipient for not understanding it as it was intended, this is because the sender ensured that the rightful message was passed.

The school leaders should identify all the stakeholders, get to know the proper communication channels that can be easily used by them and come up with strategies of making them easier and more effective at the same time aligning the needs of the students and the communities involved. Proper channels of communications are identified by understanding all the stakeholders involved, increasing their levels of commitment as well as analyzing their positions. This way it will be easier to identify the best way to communicate to different stakeholders (Austin, Erica, Bruce 2011).

There are things that the theory uses to ensure that the messages have the fewest mistakes during communication processes like communicating complex or new ideas in school needs clarity and with a low speed when talking to students; this is to ensure that the students get to understand every step that is needed. The stakeholders should generate and communicate information that is clear and concise. This improves credibility and growth of the school. Another factor is diction, it tells more about the speaker and the intention. The wrong choice of words might lead to misinterpretation which is a barrier to the growth of children. A careful collection and choice of meaningful words are impactful in a learning environment because it portrays confidence and professionalism. In a formal conversation, the diction used should be professional and words should be chosen carefully to reflect seriousness (Harrison 2014).

There is a need for everyone in the school to understand why certain processes are the way they are in the easiest way possible. This will decrease chances of conflicts which lags the development of students. On developing effective communication channels, all the stakeholders might not entirely agree with the plan but there should be few great supporters who agree with the plan and support it strongly. Another way is through a preparation on addressing objections; these will earn the project the confidence that it is great and neutralizing the objections or better, make everyone understand the weight of good communication and issues that bad communication might bring.

Work cited

Austin, Erica W, and Bruce E. Pinkleton. Strategic Public Relations Management: Planning and Managing Effective Communication Programs. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2011.

Harris, T. E., $ Nelson, M. D. (2008). Applied organizational communication: Theory and practice in a global environment.New York: Lawrence Erlbum Associates

Harrison, A L. (2014). Business Environment in a global context

Priddat, B.P. (2014). Communication and economic theory. How to deal with rationality in a communication environment. New York

Rai, Urmila, and S M. Rai. Effective Communication. Mumbai [India: Himalaya Pub. House, 2009. Print.

Attached is Assignment 4 About Synthesis of the research


The topic of education and leadership draws a myriad of sub-topics that all relate to the different facets of education and leadership. Ideally, the focus is on the various peer-reviewed articles on the general topic of educational leadership drawing an inference from the different sub-topics in the field. First, let’s conquer that there is a general structure of writing journal research papers that prove a point of similarity or commonality. However, on the other hand, the scope of each study, the techniques, and articulation and interpretation by different authors vary. Identification of the variations in various sources is critical in the determination of authenticity and correctness of information contained in the articles. The synthesis of each scholarly literature regarding the topic defines the competence of details in an argumentative and explanatory form.


In the synthesis, we focus on the concepts of leadership within the education structure. Our focus on the five scholarly journals all focuses on different forms of leadership within the education structure that involves various stakeholders in the sector. The article by Catharine Biddle focuses on the role of stakeholder’s relationship and role of effective leadership (Biddle, 2017). In the section, the concept of inclusive leadership she describes is a useful tool to ensure collective growth within an institution. From her concept, the climate where there is greater organizational attachment creates trust among the stakeholders. While the students make up one of the most critical stakeholders, she does note the crucial importance of other players in the sector.

Principalship approach is a concept by Canute Sylvester on his article (Thompson, 2017). In his idea, he highlights the critical importance of proper leadership from the top, which directly translates to the performance of the school. The idea is a different view of leadership, separate from the collective approach or co-operation earlier mentioned. In his assertion, he raises the question, how important is leadership in determining school performance? Development of concepts and facts to prove the ideology confounds on international comparison of various education systems around the world.

Roberta F. Callaway conforms to a different perspective of educational leadership (Callaway, 2017). The author focus is on the relationship between teacher’s abilities and efficacy to cultural relations and a culturally complex environment within the learning institutions. The concept by Roberta is different. It gives a different view on leadership, preferably not the forms of educational direction as the previous two authors, but what external factors affect administration in education. The idea of cultural subtleties is severe issues in dynamic or cosmopolitan regions of the world. In author’s argument, the concept of balance between students from the different cultural area and teachers of diverse cultural background is critical in providing quality education. Leadership is a crucial factor as Roberta asserts, and play a key role in determining teacher’s efficacy in teaching.

Interestingly, however, research by Jenny T. Sabin, brings out another concept (Sabin, 2015). The issue of teacher’s morale and leadership and the correlation to growth and development of students. The study is as a result of continuous budget cuts in various schools in different states in the country. Such situations bring an apparent strain to the multiple stakeholders within an institution. In particular, teachers, who are the primary leaders in the schools that guide daily operations, and primarily the quality and development of the students. In the study, Jenny asks the question on the relationship between performance and growth of student with leadership and morale of teachers. In the author’s analysis, there is an apparent relation between teacher’s confidence and their performance.

The last journal under synthesis is by Army S. Bowles who tries to understand the role of grading systems and the role of mClass Reading in the assessment of students (Bowles, 2015). It is essential to appreciate that this is a different dynamic with relation to educational leadership. It is, conversely, imperative to note that the concepts under the topic have a direct bearing on the performance of the student. The issue is on the predictability of high-risk assessment depending on the mClass Reading 3D. It brings on board the idea of best practice with a view of maintaining exceptional performance among the students (Bowles, 2015).Ideally, the idea is a process of reading that is critical in enduring that student not only understands the basics of reading but can handle various complexities of reading in their field of specialization. It is, therefore, an integral tool for teachers in administering the best to the student. I general, the concept by Army are not directly in educational leadership. Nonetheless, they play an integral role in managing proper leadership roles and principals to the students. Conclusively, the article does introduce a different concept in leadership.


In the different articles, the authors had similar theoretical frameworks. The design and scope of the study by each author have depth in providing adequate information that forms a proper background of each study. It is important to note the specific familiar concepts in different articles. First, there is a general agreement that leadership is an integral aspect of education. In any way, leadership determines the development and growth of students, in addition to the performance of the students. It is therefore imperative to note that, how individuals or appropriate stakeholders within the education system apply their leadership skills matter. Also, we can recount the in-depth sources in the theoretical framework. A closer look at the sources, provide research work from the last thirty years to current information. Such contrast and data range include credibility of information contained.

It is interesting to note that the articles present similar definitions of leadership.In general terms, the present articles leadership as a collective, or a relation engagement within a leadership framework. Ideally, leaders have a guide structure, where each endeavor to pursue set objective and goals. Moreover, leadership means that individuals from the enabling factor for others under them to achieve the set objectives. Most importantly, however, is the assertion that direction is not a position, preferably it is the behavioral functions and understating of the role mandated. The underlying concepts of leadership from the background of the articles. In each one, it asserts the need to first understand the position of leadership before application within different facets of education structures and levels.


In the methodology aspect, there is no similarity in all articles on methods used. However, on items with similar methodologies, sample collection is random. However, it is also important to note that for those similar sample collection method, use of observation is also a common aspect. It, therefore, defines the concept of conceptual data analysis, which only identifies as competent when the idea of bias eludes. The idea above is essential in any stud. First, in any research, it is imperative to avoid preference to ensure that information deduced is impartial and represents or paints a picture of the current situation.

On the other hand, there are many differences in approach of research and methodologies. First, we identify the different methodologies of research before determining the reason for the differences. Onset, one particular investigation by Canute conducts a survey and uses the sampling method for data collection. It is a critical approach to the specific study given the scope of the review. Interestingly, on the other hand, Catharine Biddle article approach is different. It uses some methods of data collection. In particular, use of observation, data or document analysis and interviews is common. Idyllically, the study focuses on previous studies on the same topic, taking inference from the past to the current situation. The approach is an effective method in understanding the progress while at the same time identifying if changes recommended in the past are under implementation at present.

The difference in methodology is an integral aspect of any research. First, it is important to note that methods are research specific and parameters all defer. Ideally, one would assume that since the topic of discussion is similar, then the methods and data collection are identical. However, unless the scope is similar and variables essentially require indistinguishable parameters, then the aforementioned is applicable. In our case, the variations are an essential component to ensure research authenticity and completeness.

It is interesting that in the final analysis and findings of the different research, they all have a similar conclusion. In general, each emphasizes the critical importance of leadership in education. However, about the correlational studies between student engagement, teacher morale, and achievements by the student, the research shows each variable is independent. However, the study agreed that leadership was a critical component of teacher’s confidence. However, the administration was in the overall integral in growth and performance of the students (Lambert, 2002).

Common themes

One other common theme is of the co-operative form of leadership. Ideally, an inclusive kind of leadership is not only essential but ensures that all facets feed into the objectives in place. The idea of principalship is evident in comparison to the study of trust formation in leadership. In broad terms, to ensure that the objectives, and goals set capitalize into results, then leadership takes precedence.

Finally, not all articles provide a recommendation for further research on the topic of a new issue that arises. However, in the few that have the proposal above, give the specific study area or topic, while prescribing the importance of such studies. The completeness of other articles without the section cover entirely arising questions through delivering control mechanisms.

In conclusion, the synthesis of the articles provides a descriptive and analogical understanding of the articles. In each section of the integration, an in-depth look at what is educational leadership not only derives the readers understanding but enables critical approach in the conceptualization of research methodologies and analysis (Hargreaves & Fink, 2004). The argumentative aspect of the synthesis describes the different issues of leadership in education. Moreover, as seen there are different perspectives of the study, and various ideologies of the main topic and appropriate differentiation are necessary. Ultimately, the explanatory aspect of it provides a conclusive and decisive component of the synthesis.


Biddle, C. (2017). “Trust Formation When Youth and Adults Partner to Lead School Reform: A Case Study of Supportive Structures and Challenges,” Journal of Organizational & Educational Leadership: Vol. 2: Iss. 2, Article 2.

Bowles, A. (2015). “Does mClass Reading 3D Predict Student Reading Proficiency on High-Stakes Assessments?”. Journal of Organizational & Educational Leadership: Vol. 1: Iss. 1, Article 3.

Callaway, R. (2017). “A Correlational Study of Teacher Efficacy and Culturally Responsive Teaching Techniques in a Southeastern Urban School District,” Journal of Organizational & Educational Leadership: Vol. 2: Iss. 2, Article 3.

Hargreaves, A., & Fink, D. (2004). The seven principles of sustainable leadership. Educational leadership, 61(7), 8-13.

Lambert, L. (2002). A framework for shared leadership. Educational leadership, 59(8), 37-40.

Sabin, J. (2015). “Teacher Morale, Student Engagement, and Student Achievement Growth in Reading: A Correlational Study,” Journal of Organizational & Educational Leadership: Vol. 1: Iss. 1, Article 5.

Thompson, C. (2017). “Teachers’ Expectations of Educational Leaders’ Leadership Approach and Perspectives on the Principalship: Identifying Critical Leadership Paradigms for the 21st Century,”. Journal of Organizational & Educational Leadership: Vol., 2: Iss. 2, Article 4.

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