Module 04 Case Study: Bone Tissue

Part I— “Marissa” Questions

  1. Describe bone tissue and the role each component plays in bone physiology and remodeling. What is the difference between compact and spongy bone? (2 points)
  2. Explain the relationship between calcium and bones. (1 point)
  3. Explain how the body controls calcium levels in the bones and blood. Be sure to describe the roles of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in detail. (2 points)
  4. Explain specifically how osteoporosis affects the bone matrix and the normal bone remodeling cycle. (1 point)
  5. Discuss what scientists know about the genetics behind osteoporosis. (1 point)
  6. List at least 5 controllable and 3 uncontrollable risk factors for this disease. (1 point)
  7. What are the symptoms or telltale signs of osteoporosis? (1 point)

Part II— “Jeremy” Questions

  1. What foods are good sources of calcium? (1 point)
  2. Discuss the importance of Vitamin D to calcium absorption. (1 point)
  3. Discuss calcium supplementation and the recommended daily dosages. (1 point)
  4. Discuss the effects of sodium, caffeine, and alcohol on calcium levels in the body. (1 point)
  5. Explain what peak bone mass is and its relationship to osteoporosis. (1 point)
  6. Describe the types of exercise that help prevent osteoporosis. Why? (1 point)
  7. What are steroids? What are some examples of steroid prescription medications? What are they used for? (1 point)
  8. Explain how long-term use of steroids may increase risk for osteoporosis. (1 point)

Part III— “Eleanor” Questions

  1. Define “perimenopausal” and explain how menopause affects a woman’s hormonal levels of estrogen and progesterone. (1 point)
  2. Explain how estrogen affects calcium levels in bones. (2 points)
  3. Explain how smoking affects estrogen levels. How does this in turn affect calcium levels? (1 point)
  4. What is HRT? Who is it intended for? (1 point)
  5. In general, and based on medical studies, what are the pros and cons of HRT? (2 points)
  6. Describe at least two other drug options available to men and women to help prevent and/or treat osteoporosis. (1 point)
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