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Aims of the research
- Are the aims and objectives of the research clearly stated?
- Is (are) the research question(s) clearly defined and focused?
- Are the methods used appropriate to the research question(s)?
- Is the recruitment or sampling strategy appropriate to the aims of the research?
- Are methods of data collection adequate to answer the research question?
- Are the roles of researchers clearly described?
- Have ethical issues been addressed adequately?
- Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?
- Are the findings internally coherent, credible (valid)?
- Are the findings relevant?
- Are the implications of the study clearly reported?
- Is there adequate discussion of the study limitations?
â€¢ What are the goals of the research?
â€¢ Why it is important?
â€¢ What is its relevance to the wider body of research and the specific field?
2.Is a qualitative approach appropriate?
â€¢ Does the research methodology seek to understand or illuminate the
subjective experiences or views of research participants?
â€¢ Does the research methodology seek to understand WHAT is happening and the reasons WHY observed situations or outcomes occur?
â€¢ Is (are) the question(s) relevant to the aim of the study?
â€¢ Is (are) the question(s) structured in a way that seeks to answer all the objectives of the study?
â€¢ Is a range of methods used for triangulation, or is use of a single method justified?
â€¢ Has the researcher justified the research design (for example, have they discussed how they decided which methods to use)?
Recruitment and data collection
â€¢ Has the researcher explained how the participants were selected?
â€¢ Are the reasons for this choice discussed/compared to other strategies?
â€¢ Is it clear why some participants were not selected, or declined to take
â€¢ Are there details about who was selected and why (consider gender, age, ethnicity, marital status)?
â€¢ Was the sample sufficient to understand the study context and population?
â€¢ Is it clear how data was collected (topic, guides checklists, focus groups, semi-structured interviews)?
â€¢ Has the researcher justified the methods chosen?
â€¢ Are details provided about the methods used (for example for interview method, is there an indication of how interviews were conducted, did they use a topic guide)?
â€¢ If methods were modified during the study, has the researcher explained how, and why?
â€¢ Were data collection tools pilot tested?
â€¢ Who conducted the research, how were they selected?
â€¢ Are the researchers skills, motives, background, position in terms of
power-relations (gender, age, ethnicity, employment relations etc.) and
perspective described and discussed?
â€¢ Have the researchers critically examined their own role, potential bias and influence during the formulation of the research questions, data collection and sample recruitment?
â€¢ Are there sufficient details of how the research was explained to the
â€¢ Are there details of what consent procedures were used? And how
consent was obtained?
â€¢ Is it clear how confidentiality and privacy were assured in the study?
â€¢ Was approval sought from the ethics committee?
â€¢ Is it clear how the researcher processed the raw data to arrive at the
â€¢ Were the categories and themes identified in advance, or derived from the data?
â€¢ Are all data taken into account in the analysis?
â€¢ Are responses/experiences compared and contrasted across different
â€¢ Have the researchers critically examined their own role, potential bias and influence during analysis and selection of data for presentation?
â€¢ Are findings drawn from analysis of collected data rather than from the researcherâ€™s preconceptions?
â€¢ Is there an adequate discussion of the findings both for and against the researchersâ€™ arguments?
â€¢ Has the research critically reflected on the quality of the data collected and skills of the research team?
â€¢ Are the findings relevant to the study aims/objectives/questions?
â€¢ Is there a discussion about how the research contributes new knowledge or understanding in the field?
Implications of research
â€¢ Are the findings placed in the local context (geographical, cultural, political, socioeconomic)?
â€¢ Are the findings discussed in wider context (in relation to other studies on the same topic)?
â€¢ Have finding been disseminated to key stakeholders including
â€¢ Are the weaknesses of the study design discussed?
â€¢ Is there a discussion of new areas where research is needed?